Black Gram Growing and Cultivation Practices

Black Gram Growing and Cultivation Practices:

INTRODUCTION TO BLACK GRAM (BLACK GRAM or URAD BEAN)

Origin: India is considered as the primary center of origin and Central Asia as the secondary center of origin of black gram. Black gram scientific name is Vigna mungo. This leguminous pulse has inevitably marked itself as the most popular pulse and can be most appropriately referred to as the “king of the pulses”.

Being a short-duration crop, it fits well in many intensive crop rotations. It is also used as a green manure crop. It is mainly consumed as dhal or split seeds (husked and unhusked) and husked dal is ground into a fine paste and allowed to ferment with rice flour to make ‘dosa’ and ‘Idli’ ( a south Indian favorite food).

The peculiarity of black gram is when ground with water develops mucilaginous character giving additional body to the mass. It contains 25% protein, 1.83% fat, 61.0% carbohydrate. It is a chief constituent of ‘papad’. Haulms are used as fodder. Husk and split beans are useful as livestock feed. It possesses a deep root system, which binds soil particles and prevents erosion.

IMPORTANCE OF BLACKGRAM GROWING

  • Consumed as dhal or split seeds, husked or unhusked.
  • The chief constituent of papad.
  • Black gram haulms are used as fodder.
  • Husk and split beans are used as livestock feed.
  • Black gram crop possesses a deep root system that binds to soil particles and prevents erosion.
  • Black gram is also used as a green manure crop.
  • Contains 25% protein, 1.83% fat, 61% carbohydrate.
  • The peculiarity is when ground with water develops mucilaginous character giving additional body to the mass.
  • Black gram dal is ground into a fine paste and allowed to ferment with rice flour to make dosa or Idli.
  • Black gram fixes the biological nitrogen in soil by symbiosis with rhizobium and improves soil fertility.

NAMES OF BLACKGRAM IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES

  • English: Black Gram.
  • Hindi: Urad dal.
  • Marathi: Uddachi dal.
  • Bengali: Mashkalair dal.
  • Gujarati: Aalad.
  • Punjabi: Mah-di-dal.
  • Kashmiri: Kaha.
  • Oriya: Biri.
  • Tamil: Ulutham paruppu.
  • Malayalam: Uzhunnu parippu
  • Telugu: Minumulu.
  • Kannada: Uddina bele.

VARIETIES OF BLACKGRAM

  • BDU-1.
  • TAU-1.
  • TPU-4.
  • TAU-2.
  • Pant U-35.
  • Azad-1.
  • Pusa-1.
  • Pant U-30.
  • CO 4.
  • CO 5.
  • KM 2.
  • K 1.
  • KM 2.
  • VBN 1.
  • VBN 2.
  • ADT 2.
  • ADT 3.
  • ADT 4.
  • ADT 5.
  • KM 2.
  • T 9.
  • TMV 1.

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT FOR BLACK GRAM GROWING

  • The ideal soils with well-drained loam or sandy loam, black cotton soils are required for black gram. In general, the black gram grows in the area which receives about an annual rainfall of 800 mm. It is a hardy and drought-resistant plant and can be grown in areas receiving 650 mm rainfall.
  • The optimum temperature for better growth ranges between 25°C to 35°C but it can tolerate up to 42°C. The black gram is grown from sea level to 1800 meters. The optimum pH requirement is 5.5 to 7.5.
  • Avoid the waterlogged, saline, and alkaline soils for growing the black gram. The heavy rains during the flowering time are harmful, it may cause flower drop.
  • Highly tilth soil possesses a deep root system, which binds soil particles and prevents soil erosion.

CROPPING SYSTEMS AND ROTATIONS IN BLACK GRAM GROWING

Crop rotation:- Growing the two or more crops in the same piece of land by season followed by season is called crop rotation. It stops land degradation. By growing black gram the fertility will increase by fixing biological nitrogen in the land.

  • Paddy followed by the black gram.
  • Paddy followed by paddy then followed by the black gram.
  • Black gram followed by Maghi Jowar.
  • Black gram followed by tobacco in black cotton soils.

SEED AND SOWING / PLANTING IN BLACK GRAM

  • The seed rate for the rainfed area is 15-18 kg/ha.
  • The seed rate for the irrigated areas is 18-20 kg/ha.
  • Rice follows a black gram seed rate is 40-45 kg/ha.
  • Spacing: Dibbling method: 30 cm x 10 cm.

Seed rate: The seed rate for black gram cultivation is given below:

Objectives Sowing Method Seed Rate  
Seed purpose Broadcasting 35 to 40 kg/ha.
Line sowing 25 to 30 kg/ha
Green manure or Feed purpose Broad casting 50 to 60 kg/ha

On wetland bunds, dibbling at 30 cm spacing is recommended.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN BLACK GRAM

  • Recommended fertilizer application for the rainfed area is 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5/ha.
  • Recommended fertilizer application for Irrigated is 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5/ha.
  • Foliar spray of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) is applied to black gram crop ( in case the crop is rotated with rice). Spray 2% Diammonium phosphate (DAP) at the time of the first appearance of the flower and 15 days later. Spray 40ppm NAA at the time of first flowering and 15 days later.

IRRIGATION FOR BLACK GRAM CROP

Not required for the rain-fed crop. For irrigated cropping area

  • After sowing, irrigate the field immediately followed by life-saving irrigation on the third day.
  • Depending on the soil moisture, Irrigation should be carried out at 10 to 15 days intervals.
  • The flowering and pod formation is a critical period for irrigation in black gram cultivation.
  • Water stagnation is avoided at all stages of the crop.
  • The foliar spray of KCl at 0.5% is applied during the vegetative stage if there is moisture stress.
  • Drip irrigation is a highly successful formula in black gram. It saves time, water, labour, and power. The drip system provides irrigation at the root zone area and you may also apply the fertilizer along with the drip flow.

WEED MANAGEMENT IN BLACK GRAM CULTIVATION

Weeding operation is done by the labour by hand weeding. Weeding can be controlled by spray fluchloralin 1.5 lt/ha or pendimethalin 2.0 lt/ha as preemergence 3 DAS (days after sowing) followed by one hand weeding 30 DAS (days after sowing). Based on the intensity of weeds you can plan for chemical control or hand weeding.

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DISEASE AND INSECT PEST CONTROL IN BLACK GRAM CULTIVATION

YM virus

In the black gram crop, the mungbean yellow mosaic is the most destructive disease. Show alternating green and yellow patches in the infected plants. Usually, the leaf size is not affected. However, sometimes the green areas are slightly raised and the leaves show a slight puckering and reduction in size. The leaves become papery white and thin. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci transmits this disease. It acts as a vector.

This virus can be controlled by growing resistant varieties like Pusa-1, KM-2. Chemical control can be carried out by spraying the Metasystox & Malathion at the rate of 3ml per lit of water.

Leaf curl

The young leaves are chlorosis around the lateral veins and branches near the margin. Leaves are twisted. Some leaves show marginal curling. Under the surface of the leaf shows the vain reddish-brown discoloration and followed to the petiole.

Controlling by improved cultural methods and growing resistant varieties. Use pheromone traps as mechanical control. Chemical control by 2 to 3 sprays of Metasystox at the rate of 3ml per lit of water every 10 days interval.

Seed/Seedling rot

Seed rot can be controlled by the seed treatment with Thiram/carbendazim 2.5 grams/kg. Those can also be controlled by growing disease-resistant varieties.

Anthracnose

The chemical control by spray the Mancozeb/zineb @ 2 kg in 1000 liters of water.

Hairy caterpillar

The undersurface of the leaves is fed by the gregariously young larvae mostly. Hairy caterpillars feed on young and older leaves and in severe infestation the whole crop is defoliated. The infected leaves dry up and this is considered as the main symptom of the black gram crop.

By picking highly infested plants with the help of hands,  just remove them from the crop and burn them. Chemical control by the dusting 2n % methyl parathion @ 25 to 30kg per ha. Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp., Bracon spp.

Predators include Spider, red ant, dragonfly, Lacewing, ladybird beetle, praying mantis, ground beetle, and shield bugs.

Leafhopper

Pick up the infected plant from a crop. Chemical control by the basal application of phorate at the rate of 10 kg per ha. Spray monocrotophos @1ml per lit water.

Jassids

Chemical control by the basal application of phorate @10 kg/ha. Spray monocrotophos at the rate of 1ml per liter of water.

Leaf spot

On the leave, stalk, and pods you can observe the symptoms like angular brown or red spots, with a grey or brown center and reddish-purple border.

Control

The chemical control can be carried by spraying the Bordeaux mixture (5:5:50) or 0.2% Ziram.

Powdery mildew

The symptoms are observed like white powdery patches on leaves and other green parts, later becomes dull-colored and are studded with a black dot.

Control

The chemical control can be carried by dust in the crop with finely powdered sulfur (200-mesh) @ 20kg/ha.

HARVESTING & THRESHING IN BLACK GRAM GROWING

The plants are harvested when 80% of the pods are matured and the plants are stacked for few days before threshing. The crop comes to maturity at 80-95 DAS (days after sowing). Upon ripening, black gram pods turn from green to yellow and then to black. In the case of the irrigated crops, ripened pods can be collected in one or two pickings. If all plants mature at the same time, then plants are cut and spread on the threshing fields to dry. The plants will dry and become black and pods start splitting. The plants are then beaten using sticks and separate seeds from pods followed by winnowing to remove debris.

YIELD IN BLACK GRAM GROWING

  • Yield in Rainfed area: 600-700 kg/ha.
  • Yield in Irrigated area: 1000-1300 kg/ha.
  • Yield in Rice follows area: 500 kg/ha.

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