Did you know insect pests can be a major problem for cabbage farmers and gardeners? These pests can damage the cabbage leaves, reducing the crop yield and quality. However, there are several effective strategies that farmers and gardeners can use to manage insect pests in cabbage. Crop rotation, companion planting, and proper irrigation and fertilization are prevention strategies that can help reduce the risk of insect infestations.
Physical barriers and sanitation practices can also keep insect pests under control level. Cultural strategies like traps, pheromone lures, and biological and mechanical controls can help reduce insect populations. Chemical control strategies like insecticides should be used as a last option and with caution.
Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
Introduction to Overview of Cabbage
Cabbage, a leafy vegetable from the Brassica oleracea species, is closely related to other popular vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and Savoy cabbage. Cultivated for its dense-leaved heads, cabbage requires careful management due to its susceptibility to pests and diseases. Harvested in the first year of growth, seed-producing plants are cultivated for a second year.
Cabbage is a main ingredient in many dishes, and it is rich in nutrients such as vitamin K, vitamin C, and dietary fiber. The different cultivated varieties come in different shapes, colors, and textures, adding to their versatility. To improve characters’ resistance to pests and diseases and boost the nutritional content of cabbage, breeding efforts focus on selecting varieties with desirable physical characteristics such as shape, color, and firmness. Research into genetic modification is ongoing to achieve greater insect and herbicide resistance.
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Cabbage Plant Description
Cabbage is a leafy vegetable with a thin taproot and heart-shaped cotyledons. Plants can reach 2 meters in height and yield heads weighing between 0.5 and 4 kilograms at flowering. The leaves are thick, with wavy to heavily dissected edges. Cabbage flowers are yellow or white, and the fruit is a silique that opens to show small, spherical seeds when mature. Numerous cabbage types have varying forms, colors, and leaf textures. Breeding initiatives attempt to improve pest and disease resistance, nutritional content, and physical qualities like shape and color.
Major Insect Pests That Attack Cabbage
|Cabbage Head borer
|Cabbage Leaf Webber
|Diamondback Moth Caterpillar
|Cabbage Root Maggots
How to Identify Cabbage Plant Insect Pests
Cabbage worms: Loopers are a type of caterpillar that feed on cabbage plant leaves, causing ragged holes on the underside of leaves. These pests may blend well with the plant’s green or greyish coloring and can be difficult to spot. They eventually transform into white or yellow-winged butterflies that flutter around the plants. Severe infestations can lead to plant starvation and death.
Cabbage Cutworms are a type of caterpillar that chew off plants just above ground level, affecting the stem area. They are typically 1.5 inches long, mottled, or striped in green, brown, or grey. Cutworms tend to coil up when disturbed and position themselves at the moisture line in the soil, moving up and down based on the water content. They can be found a couple of inches below the soil surface, where moisture begins when the soil is dry and at the surface when newly watered.
Root maggots are common pest attacks in cabbage plants, causing stunted growth and wilted leaves. Adult flies lay eggs at the stem base of plants in the soil, and legless larvae feed on the host plant’s roots for up to three weeks, creating brown tunnels. The larvae then pupate; two to three generations can occur each growing season. These white maggots can cause significant damage to crops if left untreated.
Whiteflies: In brassica crops, the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii), often known as the sweet potato whitefly, is the most problematic. Whiteflies are little and yellow with white wings that conceal the abdomen when resting. Whiteflies are sap-sucking insects like aphids.
Flea beetles affect cabbage plants’ leaves and roots by creating small holes in the leaves. The adult beetle is a hard-shelled, dark-colored insect that measures 1/16″ long and can jump when disturbed. The slender, whitish, cylindrical larvae feed in or on roots, but root damage is usually minimal.
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Cabbage Aphids are common cabbage pests that affect the leaves by causing them to curl and turn yellow. They can be green, red-black, or white and excrete a honeydew substance. The yellowish-green cabbage aphids reproduce without mating and suck plant sap, causing it to lose vigor. The excreted honeydew also leads to the development of sooty mold, which reduces photosynthesis. Aphids infest crucifers during the cold season and cause significant damage to the plant.
Cabbage head borer attacks cabbage, cauliflower, knolkhol, and beetroot. The female moth lays yellowish-shiny eggs on leaves that hatch in four days. The caterpillar grows to full size in 9 days and turns greyish-yellow with seven purplish-brown longitudinal stripes. After six days in the larval burrow or soil, the full-grown caterpillar emerges as a pale yellowish-brown moth with grey wavy lines on the forewing. Caterpillars web the leaves and bore into the stem, stalk, leaf veins, and cabbage head, making it unfit for food. Damage causes webbed leaves, cabbage head holes, and feces.
Babbage leaf webber is a pest that infests cabbage, radish, mustard, and other cruciferous plants. The female moth lays eggs in masses on the underside of leaves, which hatch in 5-15 days. The larvae feed on leaves, flowers, and pods and spin webs that they pupate within. The pupal period lasts 14-40 days. Pests damage plants by causing webbed leaves with fecal matter and skeletonized leaves. Adult moths are small with light brownish forewings.
Diamondback moth is a worldwide pest that infests Brassica plants. Females lay small whitish eggs along the veins on the underside of leaves at night. After hatching, the greenish caterpillars with short, thin hairs feed on the leaves for about 14 days, causing small holes and skeletonized leaves. The full-grown caterpillar measures 1-1.5 cm and weaves a silken cocoon that lasts about seven days during pupation. The moth is greyish-brown with narrow wings and diamond-shaped white patches on the forewing. The pest is active for an entire year and causes serious damage, resulting in a withered appearance of the affected leaves.
Prevention Strategies for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
- Crop rotation: Rotate cabbage with non-host crops, such as legumes or cereals, to prevent the buildup of pests in the soil.
- Sanitation: Remove crop debris and weeds from the field to reduce pest habitat and breeding sites.
- Monitoring: Scout fields regularly to detect pest populations early and prevent their establishment.
- Traps: Use sticky or pheromone traps to monitor pest populations and reduce their numbers.
- Cultural controls: Use row covers, netting, or screens to exclude pests from the crop.
- Beneficial insects: Introduce or conserve natural enemies, such as parasitoids or predators, to help control pest populations.
- Resistant varieties: Choose cabbage varieties that are resistant or tolerant to pest damage.
- Timely planting: Plant cabbage right to avoid peak pest pressure.
- Water management: Use proper irrigation and drainage practices to minimize pest habitat and prevent water stress in the crop.
- Avoidance: Avoid high-risk areas or conditions, such as fields with a history of pest problems or periods of high humidity, to reduce pest pressure.
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Cultural Control Strategies for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
- Weeding: Managing weeds in and around the garden can reduce hiding places and overwintering sites for insect pests. This can limit their population and reduce the potential for infestation.
- Crop residue removal: Once the cabbage harvest is complete, removing and destroying crop residue immediately is essential to prevent any remaining pests from completing their life cycle and causing further damage to future crops.
- Crop rotation: To reduce the risk of soil-borne pests and diseases, rotating cabbage crops with other vegetables or cover crops yearly is advisable.
- Plant spacing: Cabbage plants should be adequately spaced to allow good air circulation, which helps to reduce humidity levels and prevent fungal diseases.
- Mechanical management: Hand-picking caterpillars off plants and using screens or fine mesh netting to prevent moths from laying eggs on plants can be effective in small plantings. These methods can be time-consuming but are safe and do not involve chemicals.
Chemical Control Strategies for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
- Chemical management should be used as a last option.
- Scout plantings regularly to monitor pest populations.
- When treating caterpillar pests, only active larvae should be targeted.
- Adults and pupae are ineffective at reducing plant damage.
- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spinosad are effective against caterpillars.
- Insecticidal soap and neem oil extract have low residual activity on cabbage plants.
- Imidacloprid is systemic and has a long PHI (21 days). PHI is the time between application and harvesting.
- Carbaryl, bifenthrin, and cyfluthrin are broad-spectrum and interact with Aphid’s whitefly.
- Bonide Thuricide Bt, Monterey Bt, and Safer Brand Caterpillar Killer are examples of Bt insecticides.
- Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide and Ortho Bug B-gon Lawn and Landscape Insect Killer are examples of bifenthrin insecticides.
- Sevin Insect Killer and Ortho Max Malathion Insect Spray are examples of carbaryl and malathion insecticides.
- BioAdvanced Fruit, Citrus, and Vegetable Insect Control is an example of an imidacloprid insecticide.
- Bonide Insecticidal Soap Multi-Purpose Insect Control and Garden Safe Insecticidal Soap Insect Killer are examples of insecticidal soap insecticides.
- Bonide Neem Oil and Monterey 70% Neem Oil are examples of neem oil extract insecticides.
- Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadbug Brew and Monterey Garden Insect Spray are examples of spinosad insecticides.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
Pre-sowing: The measures include the addition of well-rotted farm yard manure or vermicompost treated with Trichoderma spp. And Pseudomonas sp. for soil fertility improvement. The stale seedbed technique helps minimize weeds while covering the beds with polythene sheets for three weeks before sowing solarizes the soil. Applying neem cake at transplanting helps reduce nematodes and borer damage.
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Sowing/transplanting stage: During this stage, a soil test determines soil fertility, and nutrients are applied accordingly. Azotobacter and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria cultures are recommended during seed treatment and seedling root dip treatment.
Vegetative stage: This includes applying the second dose of nutrients 30 days after transplanting, correcting micronutrient deficiencies through foliar sprays, and mulching with black LDPE sheets. Weeding and hoeing are done once within 20-25 days after transplanting and again 45 days after transplanting, avoiding deep hoeing.
Head stage: In this stage, yellow sticky traps monitor insect pests. Plant remnants and debris should be removed and destroyed after harvest. For cabbage head caterpillar control, neem oil, NSKE, spinosad, or Bacillus thuringiensis can be used. Diamondback moth control can be achieved using chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, or pheromone traps. Imidacloprid can control aphids.
Biological Control Strategies for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
The release of natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps and predatory insects, can effectively control insect pests in cabbage. These natural enemies attack and feed on pest insects, helping to reduce their populations. For example, parasitoid wasps lay eggs inside the bodies of caterpillars, which then hatch and feed on the host from the inside.
Predatory insects, like ladybugs, lacewings, and predatory mites, feed on insect pests such as aphids, hoppers and spider mites. Using biological control can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides and is an environmentally-friendly approach to pest management.
Natural and Organic Control Strategies for Managing Insect Pests in Cabbage
One natural and organic control strategy for managing insect pests in cabbage is to make a homemade insecticidal spray using ingredients such as garlic, hot peppers, and soap. To make this spray, combine 1-2 cloves of minced garlic and 1-2 chopped hot peppers in a quart of water and let it sit overnight.
Strain the mixture and add a teaspoon of liquid dish soap. The spray can then be applied to cabbage plants every few days to help control insect pests. The strong odor and taste of the garlic and hot peppers can deter pests, while the soap helps the mixture to the leaves and suffocate the pests.
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Effective strategies for managing insect pests in cabbage include cultural, mechanical, natural/organic, and biological control methods. Regular scouting, timely intervention, and proper crop management can help reduce pest damage and improve overall cabbage production.
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