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Eggplant Farming (Brinjal) Information Guide

Table of Contents

Eggplant Farming Guide:

Eggplant Crop with Drip Irrigation
Eggplant Crop with Drip Irrigation

Introduction of Eggplant Farming:- Eggplant is one of the most common tropical vegetables grown in the world. This vegetable is known by different names and “Eggplant” is the common name in North American and Australian English but British English uses “aubergine”. This vegetable is known in South Asia and South Africa as brinjal which belongs to the family of “Solanaceae” and genus of “Solanum”.There are many eggplant varieties differ in size and shape are grown throughout the world. In south East Asia eggplant is being used in curry and used to prepare different kinds of dishes. Eggplant has some medicinal properties as well. Commercial cultivation of eggplant yields good profits and these vegetables can be marketed easily as there is good demand in local vegetable markets. Eggplants can be grown in greenhouses, playhouses and even in backyards. People who have less space can go for growing eggplant in pots or containers. Terrace farming is also beneficial for daily vegetable needs. Different eggplant cultivars produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. The most widely cultivated varieties in Europe continent and North American continent are elongated ovoid, 10 to 25 cm long and 6 to 10 cm broad in dark purple skin eggplants. A much wider range of shapes, sizes and colors are cultivated in India and elsewhere in South Asia. Basically, eggplant is originated from Burma region. However, this crop is distributed in south and south East Asia, southern Europe, China and Japan. India is the second largest producer of eggplant in the world next to China.

Health Benefits of Eggplant:- The following are some of the health benefits of eggplant (brinjal).

Health Benefits of Eggplant
Health Benefits of Eggplant
  • Eggplant is a good source of fiber and aids in digestion.
  • Eggplant helps in weight loss management.
  • Eggplant is a good source of anti-oxidants and helps in cancer prevention.
  • Eggplant is good for overall bone health.
  • Eggplant helps anemia patients.
  • Eggplant is good for brain function.
  • Eggplant is good for diabetes management.
  • Eggplant helps in birth defect prevention.

Local Names of Eggplant in Other Parts of World:- Berenjena (Spanish), Aubergine (German), Aubergine (Dutch), Patlidžan (Bosnian), Patellxhani (Albanian), Talong (Filipino), Ai Qwa (Chinese),มะเขือยาว (Thai), Патладжан (Bulgarian),Aubergine (Norwegian), Cà tím (Vietnamese), Nasu (Japanese), Vânătă (Romanian), Patlıcan (Turkish), Aubergine (Swedish), Padlizsán (Hungarian), Terung (Malay), بادنجان (Persian), باذنجان (Arabic), වම්බටු (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), 茄 (Taiwanese), Баклажан (Ukrainian), Brinjal (Indian).

Local Names of Eggplant in India:- Baingan (Hindi), Kathirikkai (Tamil), Vankaya (Telugu), Vazhuthanaga (Malayalam),Ringan (Gujarati), Vaangi (Marathi), Baigana (Oriya), Khamen (Manipuri), Bengena (Assamese), Bengun (Bengali), Badane (Kannada), Vangun (Kashmiri), Baingan (Urdu) and Brinjal.

Varieties of Eggplant:- There are many hybrid cultivars and improved varieties grown throughout the world. Oval shaped and black-skinned varieties include ‘Harris Special Hibush’, ‘Burpee Hybrid’,’Classic’, ‘Dusky’, ‘Bringal Bloom’, ‘Black Magic’ and ‘Black Beauty’. Lean varieties in purple-black skin type include ‘Little Fingers’, ‘Pingtung Long’, ‘Ichiban’ and ‘Tycoon’. Green skin slim cultivar includes ‘Louisiana Long Green’ and ‘Thai Green’. White skin slim type includes ‘Dourga’ variety, Traditional, White-skinned. Egg-shaped cultivars include ‘Casper’ and ‘Easter Egg’. Bi-colored varieties with color gradient include ‘Rosa Bianca’, ‘Violetta di Firenze’, ‘Bianca Smufata di Rosa’ and ‘Prosperosa’. Bicolored cultivars with striping include ‘Listada de Gandia’ and ‘Udumalapet’. In some parts of India, miniature varieties are grown.

Some Typical Egg Plant Varieties
Some Typical Egg Plant Varieties

Climate Required for Eggplant Farming:Basically, eggplant crop is a long  warm season crop that requires an ideal temperature range of 20°C to 28°C for its cultivation. This crop is susceptible to severe frost conditions. Usually, late varieties can withstand low temperature than early yielding ones. The high yielding season for eggplant is  rainy season under warm humid conditions.

Soil Requirement for Eggplant Farming:- Eggplant can be grown in wide variety of soils. However, a well-drained rich in organic matter soils are best suit for its cultivation. As eggplant crop is a long duration with high yield potential, it requires good fertile soil for best production and quality. When it comes to yielding in different soils, eggplant grown in clay soils produce more where as eggplant grown in sandy soils yield early. If you are planning on large scale commercial cultivation, soil testing is preferred to find out the soil fertility. Eggplant crop requires the soil pH value of 5.0 to 7.0 for good yield.

Land Preparation for Eggplant Farming: Giving 5 to 6 ploughings should bring the soil to fine tilth stage and any weeds from previous crops should be removed. Make sure to level the field with proper drainage and supplement the filed in last ploughing with well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) of 20 to 25 tonnes /ha.

Planting Season in Eggplant Farming:- Eggplant can be planted  thrice a year. The best sowing time of eggplant is May to June, August to September and December to January.

Propagation and Sowing and Spacing in Eggplant Farming:- Propagation is done through seeds. Generally 400 to 500 grams of seeds are required for 1 hectare land plantation. However, seed rate depends on the cultivar and season. Seeds are sown in nursery bed and transplanted to main field after 4 weeks during summer and after 8 weeks during winter, when they reach 7 cm  to 10 cm height. Eggplant seedlings should be transplanted in the main filed by digging mall pits. Eggplants can be cultivated on raised beds/ ridges during rainy season. Plant spacing depends on the cultivar (variety) and soil type. In case of long duration spreading cultivars, a spacing of 70 cm to 90 cm x 60 cm to 75 cm is required where as in case of bushy and non-spreading cultivars, a spacing of 45 cm to 60 cm on either side should be provided. In case of early and less spreading cultivars, paired row planting is beneficial due to easiness in harvesting and other inter-cultural operations.

Eggplant Seeds
Eggplant Seeds

Manures and Fertilizers in Eggplant Farming:- Providing proper soil nutrients and fertilizers  along with good irrigation will result in excellent yield of the crop. 20 to 25 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure (FYM) or garden compost should be applied during land preparation. It requires 60 kg of ‘N’ and  50kg of ‘P’ per hectare crop.

Irrigation in Eggplant Farming:- Eggplant crop requires frequent irrigation especially in dry season. However, ensuring the proper irrigation at the time of fruit set results in good yield and quality. It is not required any irrigation in rainy season and any stagnated water should be drained out as this crop is very sensitive to water logging conditions. Usually, irrigation should be carried out every 3 days during summer and 10 days in winter. Setting up drip irrigation is beneficial when compared to furrow method. When transplanting the seedlings in the field, carry out light irrigation to make the roots establish in the soil.

Growing Eggplant in Pots-Containers
Growing Eggplant in Pots-Containers

Weed Control in Eggplant Farming:- Make sure the field is weed free during initial stages of crop growth. Two to Three light hoeing or earthing up should be carried out to facilitate better aeration to root system. Weedicides can also be applied to control the weeds; apply fluchloralin @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha as a pre-emergent weedicide. This should be applied 1 week after transplanting seedlings in the field, followed by one hand weeding at 1 month interval. Mulching is another option for controlling the weed growth and saving from soil erosion and water evaporation.

Growth Regulators in Eggplant Farming:- There are some growth regulators which can increase the yield. These regulators need to be sprayed at commencement of flowering and 4 to 6 weeks after transplanting in the field. Contact your local horticulture department for these growth regulator applications.

Pests and Diseases in Eggplant Farming:- Common pests in eggplant farming are ;fruit and shoot borer, jassids , epilachna beetle, nematode and mites. The common diseases in eggplant farming are; bacterial wilt, fungal wilt, phomopsis blight, mosaic, damping off. For control measures of these pests and diseases can be found from local agriculture department. However, selecting quality disease free seeds with high disease resistant is advised.

Harvesting in Eggplant Farming:- Usually, for cooking purpose, eggplants should be harvested at immature stage. Manual harvesting can be carried out by just twisting or a sharp knife can do the task. Fruits should be allowed to attain a good size and colour.

Eggplant Cultivation - Ready to Harvest Fruits
Eggplant Cultivation – Ready to Harvest Fruits

Post Harvesting in Eggplant Farming:- Fruits can be stored for 7 to 8 days in a fairly good condition at 7°C to 10°C with 80 to 90 % RH. Keeping quality of fruits varies with variety (cultivar). It is advised  to store in perforated polythene bags than under open conditions.

Yield in Eggplant Farming:- Yield depends on the variety, soil fertility, irrigation and farm management practices. Generally early short duration varieties yield about 25 to 30 tonnes/ha and long duration varieties yield up to 45 tonnes/ha. Some improved/hybrid commercial varieties yield up to 75 tonnes/ha.

For Indian Agriculture Guide: Read here.

For Sheep and Goat farming Guide: Read here.


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