Green Gram Growing and Cultivation Practices:
The following is all about Green Gram Growing.
INTRODUCTION TO GREEN GRAM
The botanical name of green gram is Vigna radiata. It is originate in India. Common Name of green gram is Mung, Mung bean, golden gram. Green gram fixes the biological nitrogen, so it can grow as green manure crop. It can grow as relay crop to overcome the risk. It can be grown as crop rotation to increase soil fertility. Sprouted greengram seeds contain more protein, so it can be consumes directly. It helps in weight control and it helps in lowers the blood pressure as well.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF GREENGRAM
- Pods are used as vegetables in some areas.
- It is highly digestible pulse crop than any other pulse crop.
- The husk and haulms are used as good fodder for cattle.
- The left over seed coat i.e testa is also used for milch cattle.
- Due to the shorter duration crop, it can be fit in several multiple cropping systems.
- It is also grown as a green manure crop.
- Inclusion of green gram in cropping systems improves soil health and fertility.
- Being a close growing crop, it helps in reducing soil erosion and also checks weed growth.
- Being a legume crop, it fixes biological nitrogen in the soil.
COMMON NAME OF GREEN GRAM IN INDIAN LANGUAGES
- English: Green Gram.
- Hindi: Mung.
- Marathi: Mung.
- Bengali: Mug.
- Gujarati: Mug.
- Punjabi: Moongi.
- Kashmiri: Muang.
- Oriya: Muga.
- Tamil: Pasipayir.
- Malayalam: Cheru Pararu.
- Telugu: Pesalu.
- Kannada: Hesare kalu.
Different Varieties of Green Gram
- Jawaharlal 45.
- ML 131.
- PDM 11.
- Pusan 105.
- ML 2056.
- ML 818.
- SML 668.
SOIL REQUIREMENT FOR GREEN GRAM
Green gram is cultivated on a wide range of soils from sandy loams to black cotton soils. The crop is cultivated on well drained loamy soils. This crop cannot tolerant to water logging conditions. The optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 7.5 and fairly tolerant to soil salinity.
CLIMATE REQUIREMENT FOR GREEN GRAM
Greengram is a tropical pulse crop largely grown under semi arid and subtropical environment. It is well suited for all rain fed areas with Annual rainfall of 600 mm to 1000 mm. It can tolerate high temperatures up to 40°C, It is hardiest among all the pulses.
PREPARATION OF LAND FOR GREEN GRAM
There is no need for a fine seed bed preparation and 1 or 2 ploughings followed harrowing is adequate for this crop. Green gram is cultivated on deep soils. There is no tillage is required for greengram crop, which is used as rice fallow (Relay Crop) as the seed is broadcasted in standing crop of Rice about a week before its harvest. Tillage assures the thorough mixing of manures, fertilizers and pesticides in the soil. It avoids the weeds growth, helps in seed germination, helps to deep percolation of roots, avoids soil erosion and retains the soil moisture. In land preparation, tillage is important part.
PROPAGATION OF GREEN GRAM
The crop is propagated by seeds.
SEED RATE AND SOWING IN GREEN GRAM GROWING
If greengram is cultivated as a sole crop, it requires a seed rate of 12 kg to 15 kg/ha. If it is cultivated as a green manure crop, it requires seed rate of 25 kg to 30 kg/ha. When the greengram is cultivated as a summer cop, it requires a seed rate of 25 kg to 30 kg/ha. If greengram cultivated as relay crop with rice, required seed rate is 30 kg to 35 kg/ha and for this type, greengram should be sown in broad casting method.
SEED TREATMENT FOR GREEN GRAM GRWOWING
Before sowing the green gram seed, they should be treated with fungicide Captan or Thiram @3 gm/kg of seed. It is used for good germination seed and kills the seed born diseases. Seed treatment is must for protecting the seed and for good yield.
SPACING IN GREEN GRAM CROP
As the green gram crop considered, the 30 cm X 10 cm of spacing is required. The plant population is 3.33 Lakh plants/ha. Good spacing is needed for proper growth and aeration. It helps to do other operations like inter cultivation, picking up intersects and pests in crop. By maintaining the proper spacing, infestation will be minimized.
CROPPING SYSTEMS IN GREEN GRAM
Cropping system is followed for avoiding the lose by the natural calamities like cyclones, floods, heavy rains, drought, heavy damage of pest and diseases. Some of the cropping systems are given below which are suitable for green gram.
- Paddy followed by Greengram is as relay crop.
- Paddy followed by Paddy and then Green gram is as crop rotation.
- Greengram crop is followed by Maghi Jowar as crop rotation.
- Greengram crop is followed by Tobacco in Black cotton soils as crop rotation.
- Greengram crop is followed by Maize and then Wheat.
- Greengram crop is followed by Rice and then Wheat.
- Greengram crop is followed by Maize followed by Potato and then Wheat.
- Greengram crop followed by Maize followed by Toria and then wheat.
FERTILIZERS APPLICATION IN GREEN GRAM
Green gram symbiosis with the bacterium rhizobium. As the gram fixes the nitrogen so use of nitrogen fertilizer is low in quantity.
But initially application of nitrogen fertilizer is important.
- For rain fed crop- 10 kg of N per ha (Starter dose (or) booster dose) & 30 kg of P2O 5 /ha as a basal dose.
- For Irrigated crop- 20 kg of N (Starter dose) & 40 kg of P2O5 /ha as a basal dose.
- For Mung been, 500 gr of Rhizobium culture is sufficient for seeds required to be sown in 1 ha i.e., 2.5 packets/ha (Since I packet=200 gr) Green gram fixes 20 Kg N/ha.
- Green gram associated with VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza), which is a PO43− absorber, absorbs greater amounts of phosphorous.
IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN GREEN GRAM CROP
For rain fed crop, irrigation is not required but other than rain fed crops, it require 2 to 3 irrigations. Rice fallow green gram crop is on need of irrigation. Critical stages of irrigation at flower initiation which is 35 days after sowing (DAS), Pod filling 55 days after sowing (DAS). Total amount of water requirement in green gram is 300 mm to 400 mm. If water logging condition seen at flowering & pod filling, it reduces the yield up to 75% and more. The proper irrigation gives high vegetation and damages the weed seeds. It helps to spread the fertilizer equally in crop. For proper flowering and high yield, good irrigation is must.
WEED MANAGEMENT IN GREEN GRAM CROP
Critical period for weed competition is 35 days after sowing (DAS). Two to three hand weeding are done by the labour. If necessary inter cultivation operations may be followed. Herbicide recommended is Fluchloralin (Basalin) @ 1.5 Kg /ha or Triuralin @ 800 ml/ha. If tillage operation not effective the weeds grow heavily and it increases the cost of cultivation and decrees the yield of crop.
PEST AND THEIR CONTROL IN GREEN GRAM CROP
Sucking pest (Jassid, aphid, white fly)
Sucking pest can be controlled with pheromone traps and yellow sticking boards and it can control by spraying Malathion @ 375ml or Dimethoate @ 250ml or Oxydemeton Methyl @ 250ml/ha. Especially for white fly control, spray the Thiamethoxam @40gm Triazophos@600ml/ha. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.
Mites can be controlled with spraying Dimethoate 30EC @150ml/ha. It can control with natural enemies like predators.
They usually cause damage at flowering stage more. They feed on flowers; buds thus prevent grain formation and directly loss in yield.
This can be controlled with spraying Indoxacarb 14.5SC @ 200ml or Acephate 75SC @ 800gm/ha. Carry out spraying in evening hours and if possible take second spray 10days after first spray.
It is serious pest in green gram which causes heavy damage to crop. It can be controlled with two to three sprayings of Indoxacarb 14.5SC @ 200ml or Acephate 75SP @ 800gm or Spinosad 45SC @ 60ml/ha. Repeat spray after two weeks. It is advised to grow resistant varieties.
It can be controlled with spraying Acephate 57SP @ 800gm/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20EC @1.5Ltr/ha. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray. It is better to grow resistant varieties.
Hairy caterpillar can control by picking up caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when the low infestation seen. If in case high infestation, take spray of Quinalphos @500ml or Dichlorvos @200ml/ha. Grow resistant varieties.
DISEASE AND THEIR CONTROL IN GREEN GRAM
Yellow mosaic virus
Yellow mosaic is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are seen on leaves. You can observe that pods are not developed on the infected plants. Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties. White fly can control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40gm, Triazophos@ 600ml/ha. If needs take second spray 10days after first spray.
Cercospora leaf spot
Captan and Thiram are used as seed treatment to control the leaf spot disease. Grow ercospora leaf spot resistant variety. Spray the Zineb 75WP @ 400gm/ha. Take two to three sprays at interval of 10 days.
HARVESTING OF GREEN GRAM CROP
The harvesting is done by picking the pods. For any type of crop, harvesting is done by cutting the whole plant to the base. Whole crop do not mature at one time so one or two picking are taken. After harvesting the crop is dried in sun and trashed it separately.
THRESHING AND PROCESSING IN GREEN GRAM CROP
After harvesting the crop is cleaned and sun dried to about 12 percent moisture content and then stored. Make sure to clean thrashing yard to avoid any transmission of diseases and pests.
YIELD OF GREEN GRAM CROP
On an average, you get the yield up to 15 to 25 qt/ha. With applying good skills, taking care about crop, growing high yield varieties, using proper agronomical practices you get best profits from green gram cultivation.