Green Peas Cultivation Guide:
Introduction of Green Peas Cultivation:- Well, pea is one of the legume/vegetable crops grown for its pods. In most of the Asian countries, Peas are cooked as vegetables and use for soup preparation. Green pea straws can be used as fodder for livestock. Being very nutritious, peas are cultivated widely. Farmers with good crop management practices can obtain excellent profits in pea farming. Green peas can also be grown in controlled environments such as greenhouse and polyhouse.
In this write-up, let us discuss more about growing green peas.
Scientific Name or Botanical Name of Green Peas:- Pisum sativum L.
Genus of Green Peas:- Pisum.
Family Name of Green Peas:- Fabaceae.
Top 10 Countries of Green Peas Production:- The following are top 10 production countries of Green Peas.
Common Names Green Peas:- Matar (India), Grünen Erbsen (German), Erwten (Dutch), вандуй (Mangolian), Zielony Groszek (Polish), bizele të njoma (Albanian), grašak (Bosnian), Kerau (Nepali), αρακά (Greek), Piseanna Glas (Irish), Guisantes (Spanish), Mattar (Urdu), Pisum sativum (Italian), Nogsaeg Wandukong (Korean), ถั่วเขียว (Thai), 青豆 (Chinese), Wervilhas verdes (Portuguese), berde mga gisantes (Filipino), エンドウ (Japanese), zaļie zirnīši (Latvian), Mazăre (Romanian), Pois verts (French), zelený hrášek (Czech), ග්රින් පීස් (Sinhalese), зеленый (Russian), gröna ärtor (Swedish), yeşil bezelye (Turkish), mtsvane barda (Georgian), grønne ærter (Danish), kacang hijau (Malay), nokhod farangee (Persian), 青豆 (Taiwanese), grašak (Croatian).
Health Benefits of Green Peas:- The following are some of the health benefits of Green Peas.
- Green peas help in weight management.
- Green peas help in stomach cancer prevention.
- Green peas are good for heart.
- Green peas help in preventing constipation.
- Green peas help in reducing bad cholesterol (LDL).
- Green peas are good for bone health and prevent from arthritis and osteoporosis.
- Green peas improve immune strength.
- Green peas have anti-aging properties.
- Green peas help in regulating blood sugar.
- Green peas help in preventing from Alzheimer’s and bronchitis.
Cultivars (Varieties) of Green Peas:- Peas have both low-growing and vining cultivars. There is early season, mid-season and late season cultivars depending on the maturity of pods. The most widely grown varieties are; Alaska, Thomas Laxton, Tom Thumb, Miragreen, Mr.Big, Homesteader, Serge, Wando, Green Arrow, Kelvedon Wonder, Sabre, Early Perfection, Bejar, Arket, Bonevilla, Jawahar, and Little Marvel.
Climate Requirement for Green Peas Cultivation:- Pea is a cool season crop and thrives best at 12°C to 18°C. This crop can withstand low temperatures at the seedling stage. Green pea plants are sensitive to frost conditions. The germination of seeds takes place at 10°C soil temperature.
Soil Requirement for Green Peas Cultivation:- Green peas crop requires a well-drained loamy soil rich in organic matter. The ideal or optimum soil pH for best yield ranges from 6.0 to 7.5.
Propagation in Green Peas Cultivation:- Propagation of pea crop is done by seed sowing.
Land Preparation in Green Peas Cultivation:- Prepare the land with country plough or tractor to bring the soil fine-tilth stage. Remove any weeds, previous crop remains from the field. Any nutrient or micro-nutrient deficiencies should be supplemented in the filed during the land preparation. Commercial growers of green peas should go for soil test to find out the fertility of the soil.
Seed Treatment in Green Peas Cultivation:- Seed treatment is important in any crop cultivation to prevent from seed borne diseases. Pea seeds should be treated with Thiram or Captan at 2 grams per 1 kg of seed to avoid seed borne diseases.
Planting Season, Seed Rate and Sowing in Green Peas Cultivation:- Planting of peas is usually done in two seasons (February-March & October-November) in Asian agro-climatic conditions. However, they can be grown throughout the year in controlled environment like greenhouse or polyhouse. Seed rate depends on the cultivar grown. Generally it takes about 30 to 35 kg seed per 1 hectare cultivation. When it comes to sowing, peas are generally sown by broad casting method. However, peas can be sown by dibbling method or even behind the plough. Seeds should be soaked in water for 24 hours for better germination percentage. For getting more yields, seeds can be treated with Rhizium culture. When it comes to plant spacing or seed sowing space, sow the seeds at 45 x 10 cm in line or use flatbed layout with spacing of 45 X 20 cm.
Irrigation in Green Peas Cultivation:- Green peas crop requires light irrigation after sowing the seeds in the field. However, pre-sowing irrigation of filed is advised for proper seed germination. Subsequent irrigation should be given at critical stages like flowering and pod development. If the crop is grown on light and sandy soils, it requires frequent irrigation. However, dry climatic conditions and summer may force to have frequent irrigations. Generally, green peas require irrigation at an interval of 8 to 10 days. In winter crops, waterlogging should be avoided as it may cause seed rotting.
Manures and Fertilizers in Green Peas Cultivation:- Proper manure and timely application of fertilizers ensures optimum yield in any crop. Well-decomposed farm yard manure (FMY) of 25 tonnes per 1 hectare should be applied at the time of land preparation. 60 kg of “N”/ha, 70 kg of “P”/ha and 70 kg “K’/ha should be applied as basal and 60 kg of “N” should be applied after 1 month (30 days) of sowing.
Intercultural Operations in Green Peas Cultivation:- The following intercultural operations should be followed for quality and high yield of pea produce.
- Weed Control: Though mechanical and chemical means of weed control is available for most of the crops, controlling weeds in pea field means of mechanical method is difficult task as the seeds are sown in rows with closed spacing. However, herbicides like simazine, propazine and atrazine (0.50 kg per acre) can be used to control the leaf weeds effectively. If you want to use growth regulators for high yield of pods, contact local horticulture department.
- Trailing & Stalking: Use bamboo sticks to support the vines of peas when they are about 2 months old and spreading stage.
Pests and Diseases in Green Peas Cultivation:- Pod borer and Aphids are main insect pests found in pea farming. Powdery mildew is the most commonly found diseases in green peas cultivation. For symptoms and their control measures, contact any horticulture department and agriculture university.
Note: Your local Horticulture is a good source for finding suitable solutions for controlling pests and diseases in Green Peas Cultivation.
Harvesting in Green Peas Cultivation:- Peas can be harvested manually in 50 to 60 days, 75 days and 95 days according to early, mid-season and late season varieties. Go for 3 to 4 pickings within the interval of 2 to 12 days.
Yield in Green Peas Cultivation:- Yield of peas depends on many factors like cultivar (variety), soil, climate and crop management practices. Under ideal farming conditions, the following can be obtained.
- 25 to 45 Quintals/ha in early varieties.
- 50 to 60 Quintals/ha in mid-season varieties.