Growing Oats Information:
Introduction to Growing Oats:- The oats are a species of cereal grain grown for its seed. Sometimes Oat is referred as “Common Oats”. Oats can be cultivated for human consumption as well as livestock feed. So we can grow oats as cereal crop or fodder crop. As Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol, It is being widely recommended for the regular diet. You can simulate the same cultivation practices of wheat grain. Oats have excellent uses in foods as oatmeal or ground into fine oat flour. Commercially growing oats can profitable under ideal oats farming business plan.
Scientific Name / Botanical Name of Oats:- Avena Satvia.
Family Name of Oats:- Poaceae.
Genus of Oats:- Avena.
Varieties of Oats:- Some of the oat varieties grown in the world are given below.
- Bunker 10.
- HFO 144.
- UPO 50.
Indian Names of Oats:- Oats are being called with different names in India.
Oats – English.
Pullarici / புல்லரிசி – Tamil.
ഓട്ട്സ് – Malayalam.
जई – Hindi.
Jav – Gujarati.
Oats – Telugu.
Jav – Marathi.
Joab – Bengali.
Jaw /Jaba – Oriya.
Oats Growing States in India:-
- Madhya Pradesh.
- West Bengal.
- Uttar Pradesh.
Uses and Health Benefits of Oats:- Apart from using in food items like cakes/biscuits, they provide excellent health benefits if consumed regularly.
- Oats help in preventing heart disease.
- Oats are the best food for weight loss.
- Oats are a good source of fiber hence prevents constipation.
- Oats are good at controlling blood sugar levels.
- Oats can help prevent a certain type of cancers.
- Oats help in reducing hypertension.
- Oats are a good source of source of magnesium.
- Oats are good for skin health.
- Oats can boost immune power.
Climate Requirement for Growing Oats:- Oats are mainly cultivated in temperate and subtropical climatic conditions. This crop can be grown successfully even in high-altitude tropics. Climate plays a major role in growing Oats for getting high yields. Oats thrive well in cool and moist climatic conditions. You have to ensure cool climate, especially during grain filling stage. Oats are best adapted to cotton belts of the region. Oat crop can tolerate light frosts however it is very sensitive to temperatures below -15°C and the crop can be killed below this.
Soil Requirement for Growing Oats:- Oat crop can be grown in a wide range of soil textures. However, well-drained loamy soils rich in organic matter with good irrigation facilities are best suited. The ideal soil pH for optimal yield of oats is 5.0 to 6.5. Commercial farmers should test the soil before sowing the seed. Avoid water logging soils.
Top Oat Growing Countries:- The following countries are top producers of oats.
Propagation and Seed Treatment in Growing Oats:- Propagation of oat crop done by seeds. Quality and disease free seeds should be selected and seed treatment should be carried out to prevent any seed borne/fungal/ pathogenic diseases. You can treat oat seeds with Thiram @ 3 grams/kg of seeds.
Land Preparation, Sowing, and Spacing in Growing Oats:- The selected field should be free from all kinds of weeds, rocks, and clods. You can plough the field 5 to 6 times to achieve fine tilth stage. Remember, Oats crop can tolerate high soil pH levels when compared to the wheat crop. Sow the seeds in late summer to cultivate a cover crop that creates its own mulch when it’s winterkilled, or when using ginger as a companion crop to get slower-growing legumes. Oats can also be grown as a spring cover crop to improve soil organic matter (humus). Broadcast seed to the cultivated soil so that the seeds are approximately 7 cm apart and 1 to 2 cm deep. Seed sowing may be done through drilling method. Thinning is not needed and you can increase the spacing to 20 to 25 cm apart when cultivating oats along with other cover plants. The recommended seed rate for growing oats is 25 to 30 kg per acre. However, this rate may depend on variety, sowing method and season. Best time to sow the oat seed is October to November (Indian calendar) just right before winter.
Season for Growing Oats:- Mid of the October to end of October is an ideal time for sowing Oat seeds.
Irrigation for Growing Oats:- Usually Oats are cultivated as a rain-fed crop. However, in case of irrigated-crop, 2 to 3 irrigations should be given once in a month depending on soil moisture and climate.
Intercultural Operations in Growing Oats:- Keeping weed-free environment saves water, cultivation cost, fertilizers and results in good yield. Manual weeding, mechanical weeding, or using herbicides should be carried out for effective control of weeds. However, Weeds are less likely to germinate in oat crops. Carry out 1 to 2 hoeings as part of an intercultural operation in oat field.
Manures and Fertilizers for Growing Oats:- Oat crop responds well to manures and fertilizers. Well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY like cow dung) should be supplemented during land preparation before sowing the seed. 20 to 25 tonnes is more than enough for covering the 1-hectare land. Along with soil nutrients like N:P:K should be applied at different stages. Apply 65 kg of Urea, 30 kg of nitrogen along with 8 kg of phosphorus (ssp@50kg) per acre. You can apply k and p full dose along with a half dose of nitrogen at the time of seed sowing. Remaining nitrogen should be applied after 1 month of slowing.
Pests and Diseases in Growing Oats:- Timely control of pests and diseases in oats crop utmost priority for getting higher yields.
- Pests: Aphids are main insect pests attack the oats crop. Aphids can suck the cell sap by damaging the crop. Ultimately aphids can cause leaves mottling and distortion. As part of preventive measures, you can spray Dimethoate 30EC @ 0.03%. Avoid this fodder to feed the livestock at least for 2 weeks after the spray.
- Diseases: Root rot and leaf blotch are common diseases found in oats crop. Root rot and blotch diseases can be treated by proper seed treatment before sowing the seeds.
Note: Your local department of horticulture a good source of finding information about pests and diseases in Growing Oats. Don’t experiment on your own without knowing the symptoms and causes of pests and diseases.
Harvesting in Growing Oats:- Well, you can get the crop in hand after 4 to 5 months of sowing depending on variety cultivated. Harvesting oats on time are important as late picking may cause grain shedding.
Yield in Growing Oats:- Yield of oats depends on cultivar( variety), season, crop type (rain-fed or irrigated), soil type and crop management practices.
- If the crop is grown for grain, 15 to 20 quintal grain and 25 to 30 quintals of straw/ha can be obtained under ideal crop management practices.
- If the crop is grown for fodder, the yield is about 250 to 300 quintals fodder and 4 to 5 quintals of grain/ha can be obtained.
Marketing of Oats:- You can supply to grain factories or seed buying shops.