Cinnamon Growing Information:
Today, we discuss the topic of cinnamon growing techniques and methods.
Introduction to Cinnamon:– Cinnamon or “sweet wood” is an evergreen tree described by oval-shaped leaves, thick bark, and berry fruit. When harvesting the spice, the leaves and bark are the primary areas of the plant utilized cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of many tree species in the genus Cinnamomum. The odor and taste of cinnamon derive out of its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, in addition to numerous different constituents, including eugenol. The cinnamon tree is native to Malabar Coast of India, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Bangladesh and Myanmar.
When it comes to India, Cinnamon is a small evergreen tree with aromatic bark of approximately 6 meters to 8 meters in height discovered growing wild in southern coastal regions of India. The bark is used as a culinary spice and also in medicines. Cinnamon is a must spice in south Indian kitchens and can also be used for many home remedies. Growing Cinnamon commercially is one of the best horticulture/agriculture businesses in Asian countries. In India, Cinnamon is mainly grown in Assam, Karnataka, and the Western Ghats regions. Farmers also showing interest in growing cinnamon in Konkan region of Maharashtra. Cinnamon is a wonderful plant to grow in a container as well. Usually, cinnamon plants are grown as bushes. When the plants are of 2 years old, they will be ready bark harvest. Let us go in detail of Cinnamon growing in upcoming sections of this article.
Scientific Name of Cinnamon:- Cinnamomum verum Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Family Name of Cinnamon:- Lauraceae.
Genus of Cinnamon:- Cinnamomum.
Types of Cinnamon:- The following are common types of cinnamon.
- Ceylon Cinnamon.
- True Cinnamon.
- Mexican Cinnamon.
- Saigon cinnamon.
- Vietnamese Cinnamon.
- Cassia Cinnamon (Chinese Cinnamon).
- Padang Cassia.
- Indonesian Cinnamon.
- Korintje Cinnamon.
Other Country Names of Cinnamon:- The below given are some of the cinnamon names in other countries.
- Kayu manis – Indonesia.
- Kurundu – Sinhala (Sri Lanka).
- Querfa – Arabic.
- Tarcin -Turkish.
- Darchin – Persian.
Indian Names of Cinnamon:- Cinnamon are called with different names in India.
- Cinnamon – English.
- Dalchini/Darchini – Hindi.
- Dalchini – Gujarati.
- Dalchini- Bengali.
- Karuvapatta – Malayalam.
- Lavangapattai – Kannada.
- Dalchini – Oriya.
- Dalchini – Marathi.
- Karuvapattai/Sannalavangapattai – Tamil.
- Dalachina Chekka – Telugu.
- Dalchini – Punjabi.
- Darushila -Sanskrit.
- Dalchini – Urdu.
Uses and Health Benefits of Cinnamon:- Apart from using for culinary purposes, it is one of the best natural medicine. Some of the health benefits of Cinnamon as follows.
- Cinnamon is a good source Antioxidants.
- Cinnamon contains anti-inflammatory properties.
- Cinnamon protects heart health.
- Cinnamon helps in fighting diabetes.
- Cinnamon is good for brain health,
- Cinnamon naturally helps in reducing cancer risk.
- Cinnamon works very well with infections.
- Cinnamon is good for dental health and eliminates bad breath.
Climate Requirement for Cinnamon:- Cinnamon crops thrive well in humid and hot climatic conditions. They grow very well at an average temperature of 27°C to 28°C. They can be cultivated at an elevation of 800 to 1000 meters from mean sea level(m.s.l). Cinnamon does not prefer prolonged dry weather as it hampers its growth. Generally, annual rainfall of 150 cm to 250 cm is ideal for its growth and good yield.
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Soil Requirement for Cinnamon:- Cinnamon can be grown well in average, slightly acidic (with a soil pH of 4.5 to 5.5), moist, well-drained soils in full sun to partly shady conditions. Sandy or lateritic soils with high humus (organic matter) are best suited for this crop. Red dark brown soils free from rock gravel are also good for Cinnamon plants. The quality of Cinnamon bark is highly influenced by soil and climatic conditions (ecological factors). Hence, it is very important to select proper soil for cinnamon plant growth. Commercial Cinnamon growers should carry the soil test for finding fertility of the soil.
Top Exporters of Cinnamon:- The following top producers/exporters of Cinnamon.
- Sri Lanka.
- The Netherlands.
- The USA.
Propagation and Planting Material for Cinnamon:- The propagation of cinnamon is done by seeds or semi-hardwood cuttings or air layers. Propagation is difficult with seeds as approximately 90 to 95% of seed produced is not viable. Propagation with woody cuttings is also difficult to root, but juvenile cuttings are bet for propagation which can easily root.
- Nursery Raised Seedlings of Cinnamon:- Cinnamon seeds collected from selected mother tree are sown immediately in nursery beds in rows of 12 cm distance. The best sowing time for cinnamon is July to August (rainy season). From nursery beds, seedlings of cinnamon should be transplanted to polythene bags when they reach a height of 15 cm to 16 cm.
Land Preparation, Planting, and Spacing of Cinnamon:- Land should be prepared thoroughly by removing any weeds or dead trees or any rocks. You can dig a pits of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm with a distance of 3 meter x 3 meter (or) Prepare the pits of 60cm x 60 cm x 60 at 2 meter x 2 meter spacing. Each pit should be filled with topsoil and well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) of 10kg before planting the seedlings. Ensure to plant the 1-year-old seedlings or rooted cuttings of cinnamon under partial shade during monsoon season for better root establishment. you can plant up to 5 seedlings in each pit. In some cases, seeds are directly dibbed in pits which are filled with topsoil and garden compost.
The Season for CinnamonPalnting:- It can be grown throughout the year when enough irrigation is available. However, the best season is monsoon season.
Irrigation Requirement for Cinnamon Crop:- The watering frequency depends on the climate and soil moisture holding capacity. The newly planted seedlings should be given with frequent irrigation for better root establishment. Ensure soil moisture at plant base and when it becomes dry, try to irrigate. Avoid water stress all the time.
Intercultural Operations of Cinnamon Crop:- You must carry out a timely intercultural operation in your cinnamon orchard.
- Weed control: Having a weed-free orchard is very important and weeds in a cinnamon field can be removed whenever needed. Usually, during the initial 3 to 4 years, weeding should be carried out 3 to 4 times a year. Subsequent years need 1 or 2 weedings depending on the weed intensity. Mulching also helps to control weeds other than protecting trees from soil erosion and water evaporation from the tree base.
- Training and Pruning: After 2 to 3 years planting, the shoot is cut back to a height of 30 cm from the ground to encourage new side shoots. This is popularly known as “Coppicing”. This kind of pruning should be done until the whole tree attains a desirable shape. Stooling can also be carried out around the stumps by slight mounding of the soil to produce more side shoots from the base of the cinnamon trees.
Manures and Fertilizers Requirements for Cinnamon Plants:- The following table shows the manures and fertilizer requirement for cinnamon growing.
|Manures and fertilizers||1st-year||Yearly increase|| 10th year|
|Farmyard manure (FYM)||–||2 kg||20 kg|
|N||20 g||20 g||200 g|
|P||18 g||18 g||180 g|
|K||25 g||25 g||250 g|
Note: You can apply 4 kg of Neem cake per plant after 3 years of planting.
Pests and Diseases of Cinnamon:- Timely control of pests and diseases in cinnamon growing will ensure quality produce and higher bark yield.
- Shoot borer: This pest can be controlled by smearing the stem and branches of a tree with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 grams/liter of water once in 30 days.
- Leaf-eating caterpillar, termites, and red ants: These can be controlled by dusting Methyl prarathion1.3%.
- Coffee red borer: This insect pest can be controlled by trunk injection of Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/borehole. Wait for 3 weeks after first application for before going for another application depending on the intensity of pest.
Diseases: Leaf spot is a common disease found in cinnamon growing. This can be controlled by 0.25% copper oxychloride.
Note: Your local department of horticulture a good source of finding information about pests and diseases in Cinnamon growing. Don’t experiment on your own without knowing the symptoms and causes of pests and diseases.
Harvesting od Cinnamon:- The harvesting begins from 4th or 5th year following planting. The moment rain stops, cutting of shoots for peeling of bark is started. After cutting, young shoots spring up from the stump which will be prepared for elimination in following season within 18 months. The bark is peeled in the chosen shoots of 18 to 24 months old, which are generally one meter long and 1 cm to 2 cm thick. Shoots prepared for peeling are eliminated from the stumps and terminal ends of shoots will also be eliminated. Peeling is done by knives after scraping off the outer bark. By leaves, Cinnamon oil could be extracted by steam distillation. Harvested create is called as ‘Quills’.
The yield of Cinnamon:- Yielding of the crop depends on many factors such as cultivar, age of the tree, soil, climate, and other orchard management practices. Generally, 4 to 5-year-old trees can produce a yield of 60 to 125 kg quills/ha and from the 10th year, they can produce 250 to 300 kg quills/ha.