Agriculture Farming




Livestock Farming

Poultry Farming

High Yield Hybrid Paddy/Rice Varieties in India: For Rabi and Kharif Seasons

There is a wide range of ecosystems under which rice is grown on different soil types and in various climatic and hydrological conditions ranging from waterlogged and poorly drained situations to well-drained conditions. About 6.0 million hectares of upland rice are grown in well-drained soils where moisture stress and blast are the most significant constraints regarding rice production.

High Yield Hybrid Paddy/Rice Varieties in India
Image Source

Based on the rainfall pattern and the topography of the soil, early maturing varieties of 80 to 110 days are grown in certain areas. Typically, rice varieties of 140 to 145 days duration to photosensitive types are grown in eastern India, where soil moisture is available for a more extended period, and they are harvested between mid-November and mid-December. Depending on the rain-fed lowlands, the depth of the water varies.

A shallow water layer might be only 25 cm deep, while a medium-deep water layer might be 50 cm deep. In Eastern India, deepwater rice is grown in areas where the water depth is greater than 50 cm and goes up to 2 meters. There are around 4 million acres under cultivation in areas of deepwater rice. As a result of the lower productivity of deep water rice, a large portion of the deep water rice area has been converted to dry season rice.

High yield hybrid paddy/rice varieties in India

States cultivating Paddy in India

West Bengal is the nation’s top producer of rice production. It is followed by Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Assam, and Haryana. A lot of water and labor are required to cultivate rice. Due to this reason, rice cultivation is primarily carried out in places where labor costs are low, and rainfall levels are excellent.

Hybrid seed varieties in Paddy

Rice HybridsDuration (Days)Yield (Tons/Acre)Developed byRecommended for
APHR 1130  –  1352.9APRRI, Maruteru (ANGRAU), HyderabadAndhra Pradesh.
APHR 2120  –  1253.0APRRI, Maruteru (ANGRAU), HyderabadAndhra Pradesh.
MGR 1110  –  1152.5TNAU, CoimbatoreTamil Nadu.
KRH 1120  –  1252.4VC Farm, Mandya, UAS, BangaloreKarnataka.
CNRH 3125  –  1303.0RRS, Chinsurah (W.B.)West Bengal.
DRRH 1125  –  1303.0DRR, HyderabadAndhra Pradesh.
KRH 2130  –  1353.0VC Farm, Mandya, UAS, BangaloreBihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Maharashtra, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Orrisa, West Bengal, Pondicherry, Rajasthan.
Pant Sankar Dhan 1115  –  1202.8GBPUAT&T, PantnagarUttar Pradesh.
PHB 71130  –  1353.2Pioneer Overseas Corporation, HyderabadHaryana, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.
CORH 2120  –  1252.5TNAU, CoimbatoreTamil Nadu.
ADTRH 1115  –  1202.9TNRRI, Aduthurai (TNAU)Tamil Nadu.
Sahyadri125  –  1302.7RARS, Karjat (BSKKV)Maharashtra.
Narendra Sankar Dhan 2125  –  1302.5NDUAT&T, FaizabadUttar Pradesh.
PA 6201125  –  1302.5Bayer Bio-Science, HyderabadAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Tripura.
PA 6444135  –  1402.5Bayer Bio-Science, HyderabadUttar Pradesh, Tripura, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand.
Pusa R.H. 10120  –  1251.8IARI, New DelhiHaryana, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.
PRH – 122R (Ganga)130  –  1352.3Paras Extra Growth Seeds Ltd., HyderabadBihar, Orissa, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Nagaland, Haryana.
RH 204120  –  1262.8Parry Monsanto Seeds Ltd., BangaloreAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan.
Suruchi 5401130  –  1352.4Mahyco Ltd., AurangabadHaryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Odisha, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra.
Pant Sankar Dhan 3125  –  1302.5GBPUAT&T, PantnagarUttarakhand.
Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan 3130  –  1352.1NDUAT & T, FaizabadSaline & Alkaline areas of Uttar Pradesh.
DRRH 2112  –  1162.2DRR, HyderabadHaryana, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu.
Rajlakshmi (CRHR 5)130  –  1352.4CRRI, CuttackBoro areas of Assam, Orissa.
Ajay (CRHR 7)130  –  1352.5CRRI, CuttackIrrigated areas of Orissa.
Sahyadri 2115  –  1202.6RARS, Karjat (BSKKV)Maharashtra.
Sahyadri 3125  –  1303.0RARS, Karjat (BSKKV)Maharashtra.
HKRH – 1139  –  1443.8RARS, Karnal (CCSHAU)Haryana.
JKRH 401125  –  1302.5JK Agri. Genetics Ltd. HyderabadBihar, Odisha, West Bengal.
Haryana Shankar Dhan – 1 (HKRH – 1)139  –  1443.8HAU, Haryana RARS, Kaul (CCS, HAU.)Haryana.
JRH – 4110  –  1153.0JNKVV, JabalpurMadhya Pradesh.
JRH – 5105  –  1083.0JNKVV, JabalpurMadhya Pradesh.
Indira Sona120  –  1252.8IGKKV, RaipurChhattisgarh.
PA 6129115  –  1202.7Bayer Bio-Science, HyderabadPunjab, Tamil Nadu, Pondichery.
G.K. – 5003128  –  1332.4Ganga Kaveri Seeds Pvt. Ltd., HyderabadAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka.
Sahyadri  –  4115  –  1202.8RARS, Karjat (BSKKV)Haryana, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab.
JRH –  8105  –  1103.0JNKVV, JabalpurMadhya Pradesh.
DRH  –  77597  –  1023.1Methelix Life Sciences, Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad.Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal.
HRI  – 157130  –  1352.6Bayer Bio-Science, HyderabadChhattisgarh, Gujarat, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura.
PAC 835 (PAC 80035) (IET 18178) Hybrid130  –  1352.3Advanta India Ltd., HyderabadOdisha, Gujarat.
PAC 837130  –  1352.6Advanta India Ltd., HyderabadGujarat, Chhattisgarh, J&K, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.
N.K.  –  5251128  –  1332.7Syngenta India Ltd., SecundrabadAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.
DRRH –  3131  –  1362.5DRR, HyderabadAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh Central India.
U.S.  –  312125  –  1302.3Seed Works International, Hyderabad.Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
CRHR – 32125  –  1302.2CRRI, Cuttack, OdishaBihar, Gujarat.
INDAM 200 – 017 (IET 20419)120  –  1252.7Indo – American seeds, HyderabadOdisha, Chattisgarh, Gujarat Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh.
27P11115  –  1202.3PHI Seeds (P) Ltd.Karnataka, Maharashtra.
VNR 2245 (IET 20716) (VNR – 204)90  –  952.8VNR Seeds Pvt. Ltd., Raipur – 492099Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu.
VNR 2245 (IET 20735) (VNR – 202)100  –  1052.3VNR Seeds Pvt. Ltd., Raipur – 492099Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.
C.O. (R) H – 4130  –  1353.0TNAU, CoimbatoreTamil Nadu.
Hybrid CO 4130  –  1353.0TNAU, CoimbatoreTamil Nadu.
US 382125  –  1302.7Seed Works International Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad – 34.Tripura, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka.
27P61132  –  1372.7PHI Seeds Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad –  82.Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.
25P25110  –  1152.7PHI Seeds Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad –  82.Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Karnataka.
JKRH 3333135  –  1402.4JK Agri Genetics Ltd, Hyderabad –  16.West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh.
SAVA 127115  –  1203.0Savannah seed Pvt Ltd.Uttar Pradesh.
NK 16520132  –  1372.5Syngenta India Ltd., SecundrabadChhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Telangana.
KPH 467126  –  1302.7Kaveri Seed Company LimitedChhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra.
KPH 272126  –  1301.9Kaveri Seed Company LimitedTelangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.
37P22126  –  1302.6PHI Seeds Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad –  82.Punjab, Haryana.
GK 5022123  –  1281.7Ganga Kaveri Seeds Pvt. Ltd., HyderabadBihar, Chhattisgarh.
NPH 8899168  –  1752.3Kaveri Seed Company LimitedUttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam.

Seasons for Rice crop

Since rice can grow in many climates and altitudes, it is cultivated in different seasons in different parts of the country. As a result of the high rainfall and low winter temperatures in the northern and western parts of the country, rice crops are usually grown once a year, from May to November. However, in the southern and eastern states, two or three crops are grown on a large scale.

In case you missed it: 22 Agricultural Apps for Smart Farming Solutions: Help with Farm Management, Soil, and Crop Yield

Hybrid Paddy
Image Source

There are three seasons in which rice can be grown in India – summer, autumn, and winter. Despite this, the primary growing season for rice is the “Kharif,” also known as “winter rice.” Growing rice during this period takes place from June to July, and it is harvested between November and December. 84% of the country’s rice supplies are produced in the Kharif season.

The rabi season is the season during which rice is cultivated, called ‘summer rice.’ This rice is sown from November to February and harvested from March to June. It is estimated that 9% of the entire rice crop is grown this season. In this period, it is common for early maturing varieties to be grown.

In May, the pre-Kharif rice, also known as ‘autumn rice,’ is sown. It is also essential to consider the weather conditions and rainfall when it comes to sowing. Due to this, there may be some differences in the timing from one place to another. The harvesting of this crop usually takes place during September and October. 7% of India’s rice crop is grown this season, and short-duration varieties that mature within 90-110 days are used to cultivate this crop.

How and when to harvest paddy crop

As far as the biological cycle of rice is concerned, it ranges from 95 days (for early varieties) to almost 250 days (for late varieties) from seedlings to harvest. Harvesting of medium-maturing varieties usually takes place 120 to 150 days after sowing, depending on the variety. A grain is ready to be harvested when it takes on a yellow color and becomes hard to the touch, which is a sign that it is time to harvest it.

In case you missed it: Rice Farming Information Guide

Paddy Farm
Image Source

It is essential to harvest rice crops at the right time to maximize grain quality and yields from rice crops. As a result of harvesting too early, collected grains will be immature, and as a result, they will not have a good milling recovery and will break when pressed. In contrast, when crops are harvested late, grain may fall from the panicle and cause heavy losses in the field due to falling grain from the panicle. In general, the harvest may begin when the grains are ripe at 80% to 85%, when they are a golden yellow color, or when they have become fully ripe.

The process of harvesting can either be done manually or mechanically. As part of the manual harvesting process, workers use sharp knives to collect rice plants from the rice paddies. Then, they carefully clean them and separate the damaged ones from those that are not. When harvesting is done mechanically, all operations, including cutting, threshing, and cleaning, are combined in machines that combine all the steps involved in the harvesting process.

Tips for improving paddy quality and yield

Many factors determine the final paddy quality produced at the farm. There is no doubt that good quality paddy is necessary for the best milling results, and mixing different varieties before milling should be avoided if possible. It is vital to keep in mind the following factors when determining the final quality of paddy rice:

  • As much as possible, prepare the fields evenly and levelly
  • It is essential to select the correct seeding date and rate when seeding
  • Ensure that the crop nutrition is uniform and applied at the right time.
  • Assure that the water level in the field is kept at a consistent level and that the field is drained at the appropriate time before harvesting.
  • The field should be checked regularly for pests and controlled if necessary.
  • Make sure that the fields are free of weeds at all times.
  • Harvesting them at the correct moisture content is vital to avoid delays in the threshing and drying of grains.

In case you missed it: Pests and Diseases in Rice Farming

Image Source
Prepare fields uniformly and as levelly as possible

Maintaining a uniform water depth throughout the growing season is essential to ensure uniform crop establishment and ripening throughout the field. It will result in more consistent moisture content in the grain, improving its quality. There is a possibility that lower areas of a field will mature sooner than higher areas of the field. Rice is prone to fissuring because of differences in grain moisture content, which can accelerate the process of grain spoilage and cause fissuring.

Select the suitable seeding date and rate

Depending on the seeding date, conditions during maturation can be affected. As a result of high temperatures after flowering, the amylose content in the plant can be lowered, and the chalkiness and gelatinization temperatures can increase. The larger the seeding rate, the higher the population of plants, the more competition for limited resources, the larger the lodging, and the smaller the grain size. If the seeding rate is reduced, there will be an increase in tillering, a more significant variation in maturity within the panicle, and a higher population of weeds.

Ensure uniform crop nutrition across the field and apply nutrition on time

If crop nutrition is uneven, it may result in a variation in tillering and tiller maturation across a field, which may result in a high degree of variation in grain moisture content at harvest. There is a strong correlation between nutrition and amylose content in head rice. There is a possibility that delayed nutrition may cause delayed growth and crop maturation, thereby increasing the probability that the crop will be adversely affected by adverse weather during the harvesting period (typhoons, rain, etc.)

In case you missed it: Common Factors That Can Improve Rice Yield Rate in the US

Paddy Farming
Image Source
Keep a consistent water level, and drain the field at the right time before harvest

The rice plant will abort more grains and fill fewer grains during drought. It is possible to have incomplete grain filling and more misshapen kernels if grain drainage is completed too early before harvest. Rice may be harvested at an incorrect moisture content if drainage occurs too late before harvest because the field is inaccessible.

Check the field daily for pests and control pests when necessary

As a result of insects such as stink bugs and rice bugs attacking the grain during the stages of soft or hard dough, the grain may become deformed or spotty. Spotty grains result from infection by bacteria transmitted during the feeding process, which causes them to become spotty. Whiteheads are caused by stemborers and are therefore added to the harvested material to increase the amount of unfilled grain. If pesticides are applied too late on the grain, it may result in unacceptable levels of pesticide residues.

Keep the fields free of weeds

A heavy weed infestation can reduce grain quality by competing for resources with the rice, such as nutrients and sunlight, or by contaminating the rice with weed seeds with high moisture content. It is believed that the latter can transfer moisture from wet to dry grain, which can lead to fissuring.

In case you missed it: Rice Production in Myanmar; Paddy Farming In Myanmar

Paddy Farming in India
Image Source
Harvest at the correct grain moisture content and avoid delays in threshing and drying

Crops should be cut at a moisture content (MC) of 20% – 25% or when 80 – 85% of the grains are straw-colored, and the grains in the lower panicle part are in the hard stage. As soon as the grain has been cut, it should be threshed and dried as soon as possible to avoid fissuring and excessive grain breakage. The correct machine settings should be used to avoid mechanical grain damage when harvesting or threshing in a stationary machine with a combined harvesting system.


The hybrid varieties discussed above are introduced to meet the current food requirements and overcome food shortages. By cultivating paddy with hybrid varieties, farmers gain better profits due to high yields, and the crop is resistant to diseases, thereby reducing pesticide usage.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here