Welcome to our site, where we explore the intriguing world of Indian maize farming! We’ll look at the typical expenditures per acre in different states for this important commodity. This blog reveals the economic side of maize production and offers a glimpse into India’s varied agricultural terrain.
Maize Cultivation Cost Per Acre
Overview of Maize Cultivation in India
Maize, one of the world’s principal cereal crops, improves food security in most underdeveloped countries. After rice and wheat, maize is becoming the third most important crop in India. It is widely used for the production of corn oil, corn starch, baby corn, and many other products, in addition to being used for sustenance for humans and animals. It might be referred to as the cereal queen.
Maize is referred to as Makka, Corn, and Bhutta in India. From around 12.0 million tons in the mid-2000s to over 22 million tons presently, maize cultivation has almost doubled. The acceptance of single-cross hybrids during the 1980s led to this cultivation advancement. It consistently shows interest in the domestic and trade markets. The primary key drivers of the growing importance of the maize crop in India are.
- The growing use of maize as feed
- The growing interest of consumers in technologically sophisticated, nutritious products
- The growing demand for maize seed
Land Preparation Costs for Maize Cultivation
A compacted, hard seedbed free of weeds and stubbles is necessary for maize growth. A few harrowing was needed after deep plowing. After adding ten to fifteen tons of FYM or manure, harrow and thoroughly mix with a plow. This is the ideal method of growing maize for maximum output. Ridges and furrows are made to save irrigation water. A tractor and four workers are needed for land preparation, which comes to a total cost of around Rs. 2600.
Cost of Seed and Planting Material
Approximately eight kilos of seeds are needed to cultivate one acre of maize. A kilogram of corn costs 400 rupees. Therefore, the total cost for 8 kg is around Rs. 3200. If required, seed should be treated. All three seasons, rainy, rainy, rainy, rainy, rainy, rabi, and spring, are suitable for seeding.
- The recommended seed rate for winter and spring corn is 8–10 kg/acre.
- The sweet corn seed rate per acre is eight kilograms.
- The rate of baby corn seed per acre is 16 kg.
- The seed rate for popcorn is 7 kg/acre.
Fertilizer and Nutrient Management Costs
The kind and composition of the soil determine how much fertilizer the farm needs. For fertilizing maize crops, an integrated nutrient management method is used. To produce a greater economic output from the farm, a single acre of land may need 8–10 tons of FYM (provided 10-15 days before planting), 48–60 kg of nitrogen, 16–24 kg of P, and 16–24 kg of K.
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During various phases of plant growth, such as the basal or sowing stage (20%), or four-leaf stage (25%), or eight-leaf stage (30%), tasseling stage (20%), and grain filling stage (5%), nitrogen fertilizer is delivered to the farms in five divided doses. It is important to remember that a lack of nitrogen may lower crop output by 10% to 30%. Along the seedbeds, bands of the entire dosage of each of the fertilizers above should be applied as a basal dose. All these fertilizers cost around Rs 3000.
Irrigation Costs for Maize Cultivation
Surface irrigation: This is the traditional method of irrigation where water is applied to the soil surface using gravity or pumps. The cost of surface irrigation depends on the source of water, the distance from the source, and the size of the farm. The average cost of surface irrigation for maize cultivation in India is Rs 1400 per acre.
Sprinkler irrigation: This is a modern method of irrigation where water is sprayed over the crop using sprinklers or nozzles. The water is pressurized and distributed through pipes or hoses. The average cost of sprinkler irrigation for maize cultivation in India is Rs 3300 per acre.
Drip irrigation: This is an advanced method of irrigation where water is delivered directly to the root zone of the plants using drippers or emitters. The water is applied at a low rate and frequency, which minimizes water loss and maximizes water use efficiency. The average cost of drip irrigation for maize cultivation in India is Rs 10,200 per acre.
Costs Associated with Pest and Disease Management
Because of the different seasons and inadequate handling, maize plants might get a number of diseases. It is predicted that diseases such as foliar, stalk, root, and ear rot result in a loss of 13.2%. Turmeric leaf blight, banded leaf, maydis leaf blight, and polysora rust are the most frequent diseases that affect plants. To stop these diseases, disease-resistant cultivars should be used, or bio fungicides that are appropriate for the crops should be applied before the disease manifests. To manage all these pests and diseases at timely intervals requires around Rs. 1000.
Labor Costs in Maize Cultivation
During the kharif season, weeds pose a significant threat to maize farming since they compete with crops for resources and reduce yields. Thus, to get larger yields, prompt weeding is required. Pre-emergence herbicides such as simazine or atrazine may be applied at a rate of 0.5 kg/ha in 240 liters of water per acre. It is advised to hoe once or twice for improved aeration. The weeding process costs Rs. 2,300.
It is advised to leave 60–75 cm and 18–20 cm between rows. It is recommended to plant before the monsoon for kharif, between October and mid-November for rabi, and between January and the end of February for spring crops. The cost of sowing would be around Rs. 1,200.
Machinery and Equipment Costs
|Cost (Rs) for rental
|Power Weeder/Hand Hoe
|Combine Harvester/Corn Picker
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Post-Harvest Handling and Transportation Costs
The color of the cob changes to a brownish color, the grains harden, and the moisture content drops to less than 20%. These are the signs that corn is ready to be harvested. The average crop life is 110 days. 10 to 20 quintals per acre are produced.
We may get yields of up to 40 quintals per acre using hybrids. It takes around 12 workers to harvest, and the cost of the equipment is Rs. 500. Thus, the total cost of harvesting is Rs. 1500 for labor and Rs. 500 for machines. For the farmer to transport their product to the market, it costs Rs. 1000.
State-wise Maize Cultivation Cost Per Acre
|Cost of Maize
Cultivation Per Acre (Rs.)
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Maize Cultivation
What Type of Soil Is Suitable for Maize Cultivation?
Maize grows best in well-drained, fertile loams or sandy loams with a pH range of 5.5 to 7.0. It’s a versatile crop but waterlogging and highly acidic or alkaline soils should be avoided.
How Much Water Does Maize Require?
Maize requires consistent moisture, especially during the germination, tasseling, and silking stages. Generally, it needs about 500-800 mm of water throughout its growth cycle, depending on the climate and soil type.
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Input of maize cultivation per acre in India varies significantly by state, reflecting differences in input prices, labor costs, and agronomic practices. Understanding these regional cost variations is crucial for farmers to optimize their investments and strategies for more profitable and efficient maize production.
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