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Chilli Pepper Cultivation Cost Per Acre in India: Exploring State-wise Average Production Cost

Chilli cultivation in India involves varying costs across states. This exploration reveals state-specific average expenses, considering factors like seed, labor, and irrigation. The data highlights the diverse agricultural practices and economic scenarios impacting chili farming in India.

Chilli Pepper Cultivation Cost

Chilli Pepper Cultivation Cost

Overview of Chilli Cultivation in India

India has the distinction of being the foremost global producer and exporter of chilies. Therefore, its wide and varied agricultural zones make it an important place for chili growing. The primary growing locations for chilies include portions of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. Loamy soil that drains easily is ideal for chili plants, which also like a warm, humid atmosphere. 

Selecting seeds, preparing the soil, planting, and carefully controlling water and nutrients are all steps in the cultivation process. Because chili plants are susceptible to a wide range of pests and illnesses, pest management is essential. When the chilies reach the appropriate maturity, either red or green, depending on market demand, harvesting is completed. After being picked, the chilies are dried, processed, and sold both locally and abroad.

Land Preparation Costs for Chilli Cultivation

Land preparation is one of the important steps in chilli cultivation. It involves plowing, leveling, and adding organic matter to the soil. The cost of land preparation depends on the type, size, and condition of the land, as well as the availability of labor and machinery. The average cost of land preparation for chili cultivation in India was Rs. 1500 per acre. This included the cost of plowing, harrowing, and leveling.

The cost varied depending on the size of the farm.Land preparation is essential for ensuring good soil health, weed control, moisture retention, and nutrient availability for chilli plants. It also helps in creating a favorable environment for seed germination and transplanting.

Cost of Seed and Planting Material

The cost of seed and planting material for chili cultivation depends on the variety, source, and quality of the seeds. According to various sources, the seed rate for chili cultivation ranges from 2kg to 3 kg per acre, depending on whether the variety is hybrid or open-pollinated. The cost of seed per kg also varies from Rs. 400 to Rs. 500, depending on the availability and demand.

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Greenhouse cultivation of organic peppers

Therefore, the cost of seed and planting material per acre is Rs. 5200. The seeds should be treated with bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides before sowing to enhance germination and plant health. The seeds are sown in nursery beds and transplanted to the main field after 25-30 days.

Fertilizer and Nutrient Management Costs

Chemical fertilizers are applied in split doses during the crop growth stages to provide the required nutrients for chilli plants. The recommended dose of chemical fertilizers for chili cultivation is 100 kg of nitrogen (N), 50 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), and 50 kg of potassium (K2O) per hectare, which can cost around Rs. 4,000 to Rs. 6,000 per acre. The sources of chemical fertilizers can include urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), muriate of potash (MOP), etc.

Micronutrients are applied as foliar sprays or soil drenches to correct any micronutrient deficiencies in chili plants. Micronutrients can include zinc, boron, iron, manganese, copper, etc. The recommended dose of micronutrients for chili cultivation is 5 kg of zinc sulfate and 2 kg of borax per hectare, which can cost around Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,000 per acre.

Irrigation Costs for Chilli Cultivation

Chilli is one of the most popular and profitable crops in India. It can be grown for both vegetable and spice purposes. However, chili cultivation also requires a good amount of water and irrigation management to ensure high yield and quality. According to some sources, the irrigation cost for chili cultivation per acre in India ranges from Rs. 6,000 to Rs. 10,000, depending on the type of irrigation system, climatic conditions, soil type, and crop variety.

The choice of irrigation system for chili cultivation depends on various factors such as availability of water, soil type, crop variety, climatic conditions, budget, and preference of the farmer. However, it is advisable to adopt modern methods like drip or sprinkler irrigation for chili cultivation. They can save water, increase yield, improve quality, and reduce costs in the long run.

Costs Associated with Pest and Disease Management

The cost of pest and disease management for chili cultivation per acre in India may vary from Rs. 2000 to Rs. 5000 depending on the type and severity of the problem, the availability and price of the inputs, and the efficacy and frequency of the application. However, by following good agricultural practices and integrated pest and disease management strategies, farmers can reduce the cost of cultivation and increase the yield and quality of chili.

Labor Costs in Chilli Cultivation

The labor cost is one of the major components of the total cost of chili cultivation, as it involves various operations such as land preparation, sowing, transplanting, weeding, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting, and drying. The labor cost varies depending on the availability and wages of laborers, the size and type of farm, and the level of mechanization. According to some studies, the labor cost per acre of chili cultivation in India ranges from Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 30,000, depending on the above factors.

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Plantation with Thai or Chilean peppers

Machinery and Equipment Costs

Machinery/EquipmentCost Range (INR)
Power Tiller50,000 – 100,000
Sprayer (Manual)1,500 – 2,000
Sprayer (Power)10,000 – 15,000
Dripper4,500 (per hectare)
Dryer (Solar)25,000 – 30,000
Dryer (Electric)40,000 – 50,000

Post-Harvest Handling and Transportation Costs

Post-harvest handling of chili involves various operations such as harvesting, grading, sorting, packing, storing, and transporting. These operations are crucial for maintaining the quality and shelf life of chili, as well as reducing the losses and increasing the income of the farmers. The costs of post-harvest handling and transportation vary depending on the type of chili (green or red), the distance to the market, the mode of transport, the packaging material, the storage facility, and the market demand.

The total cost of post-harvest handling and transportation of green chili per acre was Rs. 18,500, which accounted for 15% of the total cost of cultivation. The major components of this cost were harvesting (Rs. 6,250), grading and sorting (Rs. 3,750), packing (Rs. 3,000), storage (Rs. 2,500) and transportation (Rs. 3,000).

State-wise Chili Cultivation Cost Per Acre 

StateCost Per Acre (Rs.)
Andhra Pradesh37,750
Madhya Pradesh34,250
Tamil Nadu36,750

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Chilli Cultivation

How Long Does It Take for Chilies to Mature and Be Ready for Harvest?

It takes around 2 to 3 months from the date of planting to harvest, depending on the variety and growing conditions.

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Red chili peppers collected from the garden

What Is the Best Season to Plant Chilies in India?

Chilli seeds are usually sown during warm and humid seasons, with the pre-monsoon period being ideal in many regions.


After analyzing the data on Chilli cultivation cost per acre in India across various states, it’s evident that production costs vary significantly. Factors such as labor, inputs, and technology play an important role in determining the overall expenditure for farmers.


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